Vista guide how to use disk utility


In windows vista there is a disk utility which checks your hard disk for error, bad sectors and recover information. You can troubleshoot your hard disk in windows vista. this is useful vista guide to check your hard disk.

In order to check a disk in Windows Vista, go to my computer and select the drive you want to check right-click on the disk and choose Properties as shown in below snap.

On the Properties page, click the Tools tab and click Check Now.

Select the options automatically fix file system error and Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors checkboxes and click Start.

You cannot check the disk while it is in use. Windows vista perform disk check when in restart by choosing Schedule disk check.

Upon restart, you will see following screen which indicate that disk is checked for errors and repaired if needed.

how to connect or network windows vista and windows xp


now windows vista on his way and windows xp network is already established. so few vista network problems like vista not recognizing xp on home network. Or may be you installed new microsoft vista and want to add microsoft vista to xp network or looking for help how to connect vista on network with xp.

how to connect or network windows vista and windows xp

In windows vista network setting menu is in the start bar by default and easily available for simple user and easy to configure.

In the start bar find Network option.
Then select “Networking and Sharing Centre”
Here you can configure network, manage settings for network, add Computers to Your Network and Repair Connections. This is simple compare to windows xp.

Networking between XP and Vista

Many time windows vista and windows xp in a same network but both machine are not able to see each other. Main reason is windows vista automatically takes name of network as “workgroup” and in windows xp default name is “mshome”. If you make sure that both computer have same network name.
You can change the network name in windows xp by right click on my computer
Choose property
Then select computer name option
Then at the bottom workgroup name give the name what ever you like and
Apply and then ok
You need to restart your windows xp system to apply changes.

To change network name in windows vista
Right click on my computer and then property
Systems many, select change setting
It will pop up computer name, change the workgroup name.
And apply and ok

Vista tips for Printer Sharing


There may be only one pc for group of computer. And you would like to share printer for entire office or may be you want to give temporary printer access for some Windows Vista user. For this you have to do windows vista printer sharing. This Vista tips will guide you steps for printer sharing for windows vista workgroup.
To share a printer within a workgroup, enable printer sharing on the host PC (where printer cable connected). After enabling printer sharing it allow other network pc to see the shared printer. Open the windows vista Control Panel by clicking on the Start Menu > Control Panel:

Then, click View Network Status and Tasks:

If printer sharing is disabled, click the button next to Printer Sharing, then Turn on Printer Sharing and click Apply:

Printer sharing is now enabled on the windows vista host computer, allowing access to the connected printers.

now go the pc where you want to share your printer, now go to network neighborhood and find the pc where printer is connected. Once you have found the shared printer you wish to use, right click on it and select Connect

Sometime it asks for username and password from host computer to allow access for other computer. Enter username and password for windows vista. Now vista install required driver and add access to the shared printer.
Windows Vista should now install the required drivers and add access to the shared printer, allowing you to print from any application.
This Windows vista tips for printer sharing work on workgroup base Network.

Vista Tips to Recover Deleted Files


Each post has new windows vista tips. In this post I Explained how to recover deleted files from windows vista.
Windows vista System Restore makes it possible to roll back important system files to previous dates. But it is also possible to restore single file or documents those are deleted or modified. System restore point automatically generates everyday.

now make sure system restore is enabled. Now go to the folder where file was saved. Now right click in is and choose the tab Restore Previous Versions as shown in the figure.

It loads Folder Properties with a list of previous saved versions of the folder. As shown in the figure it has 1 restore point. If more than one vista restore point that select 1 by clicking it.

You have three options to access the old files - either Open, Copy or Restore.
• Open allows you to browse the archive of the folder from the restore date, letting you drag and drop any number of files out of the archive (probably the easiest method).
• Copy will prompt you to select a destination folder to copy all of the backup archive to. This is useful if you want to restore the entire folder to a new location.
• Restore will overwrite the currently selected folder with all the files from the restore point (overwriting any modifications). Only use this if you are aware any file since this restore date will be overwritten.
this Windows vista tip help to recover your deleted files

Delete the recycle bin folder at DOS level


Delete the recycled directories (each partition has its own recycled directory) Export [HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\explorer\BitBucket] when the bin is empty,
and import it after deleting the directories (contains the # of files in the bin) Export
USER\Software\Classes\CLSID\{645FF040-5081-101B-9F08-00AA002F954E}\DefaultIcon] when
the bin is empty, and import it after deleting the directories (controls which icon [full/empty bin] is
displayed) Note: I used to delete the recycled directories under Windows 98. I do not know whether it works or not under Windows 2000 and XP.

FDISK Tutorial


The Basics of Fdisk:
Primary partitions are the only one that are bootable. They're always the C: drive when active. Normally you can only have one (more with some special tricks etc.) Extended partitions are needed when you want more than one partition. You can only have ONE Extended partition. Logical Drives come into the Extended partition. They are handy since you know that you can only have one Primary and one Extended so you can get more than only two partitions. They would be your D:, E:, etc. drives.

First you need to reboot your system with the Boot Disk inserted.

1.At the A: prompt start "FDISK."

2.If asked to use Large Disc support say Yes.

3.The first screen looks like this:

Create Dos Partition or Logical Drive
Set Active Partition
Delete Partitions or Logical DOS Drives
Display Partition Information
Change current fixed drive. (In case you have two or more Hard Drivess)
So, to prepare you hopefully did a backup from your data. You did, didn't you ?!

4.Next we need to remove the existing partitions. So go to 3.

5.Next screen like this:

Delete Primary DOS
Delete Extended DOS
Delete Logical Drives
Delete Non-DOS
Delete always in the following order

Logical (All) > Extended > Primary (Last)

6.Go back to first screen after all partitions have been removed.

7.Now we need to setup our new partitions. Go to 1.

This screen looks like this:

Create Primary DOS
Create Extended DOS
Create Logical DOS Drives
Here we create in the following order

Primary > Extended > Logical Drives.

8.First create the Primary. If asked to use all space say No and enter the amount you wish for the C: drive. It should be set automatically to be the (only) Active partition. If not it may ask you or you have to select "2. Set active partition" from the main menu.

9.Next create the Extended Partition. Use all space left.

It probably advances automatically to the next step, creating the Logical DOS Drives.

10.Enter the amount you wish for the D: partition and than the rest for the third partition.

Think first about the size for the partitions.

OK now we're finished with FDISK so just exit it. Next you need to reboot with the disc still inserted and Format all partitions (the C: partition might need to be formatted with "format c: /s", check the Win95 tip). Another reboot and you can go ahead and install Windows.

When your system supports booting from CD just insert the Windows CD and reboot. The setup will start.

If not, follow these steps:

Win98: insert Boot Disk and CD, reboot, choose "2. boot with CDROM support" and once you're at the prompt change to your CD-drive letter (depends on your partition setup) and enter "setup".
Win95: You must format the C: partition with "Format C: /s"!. Next install your CDROM driver, reboot, insert the Win95 CD, change to the CD-driveletter, enter "setup".
I hope I made no mistakes.

Charge Your Mobile With Peepal Leaves ||| No Electricity Required


Now, you do not require any mobile charger to charge your mobiles. Only there is need to use green leaf of peepal tree and after some time your mobile will get charged..

No soon the people came to learn this development, they tested it and found encouraging results. If your mobile has been discharged and you are inside a jungle then you need not to use any charger. You Should pluck two peepal leaves and your work would be done.

It is very good idea and easy to charge your mobile. You would have to open your mobile battery and connect it with peepal leaf. After that without shaking mobile set you should set the battery in your mobile set. After some time your mobile would be charged.

Though it is unbelievable but as soon as the residents of Chitrakoot came to know about the discovery they could not believe the news. But when they saw it practically then the incident proved true.

Now hundreds of mobile holders are using this technique and charging their mobiles.

Whereas according to the botanists, it is just changing mutual energy into electrical energy power can be saved in battery. Similarly, it is also possible. They said that it is the subject of research.

Step by Step guide to charge your mobile battery using peepal leaf

1- Open your mobile cover

2- Take out your battery

3- Take two to three fresh leaves of peepal/pipal/ ashwattha tree

4- Touch the stub of these leaves on your mobile battery terminal for a minute

5- Clean the mobile battery terminal with the soft cloth

6- Put your battery again in your mobile and switch it on

7- Now you can see the result

8- If required repeat the process with fresh leaves

forgotten Vista Administrator password


Steps to crack Windows Vista logon account password (in case of
forgotten Vista Administrator password)

# Reboot the Windows Vista and boot up with Windows Vista installation DVD.

# While the Windows Vista installation interface pops up, click the
Repair You Computer link at the bottom-left corner.

# Next, the System Recovery Options dialog box appears. There are few
options that related to repairing Windows Vista, looks like Recovery
Console in Windows XP:

Startup Repair options is used to automatically fix problems that are
preventing Windows Vista from starting.

System Restore to restore Windows Vista setting to an earlier point in time.

Windows Complete PC Restore to restore Windows Vista from a full system backup.

Windows Memory Diagnostic Tool could be the first Microsoft memory
tester toolkit that bundled with Windows setup media.

Command Prompt is the target option of this Vista hacking guide. Click
on this option now.

# In the Vista Command Prompt, type mmc.exe and press ENTER key to
bring up the Microsoft Management Console.

# Click on the File menu, select Add / Remove Snap-in option, locate
and select the Local Users and Groups on the left panel, and click Add
button to add it to the right panel.

# Now, the Choose Target Machine dialog box pop up. Keep the default
setting by clicking the Finish button – that means using the Local
Users and Groups snap-in to manage this local computer, and not
another computer in network.

# Click OK button and return to MMC windows. Under the Root Console in
left panel, double-click Local Users and Group that was added earlier.
Click on User folder, locate and right-click the target Vista logon
account that found in the right panel.

Guess you should know what to do now. Select the Set Password from the
right-click menu to set a new password / reset old password.

100 Free Sms Sending Sites


Computer Acronyms


ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
AGP - Accelerated Graphics Port
ALI - Acer Labs, Incorporated
ALU - Arithmetic Logic Unit
AMD - Advanced Micro Devices
APC - American Power Conversion
ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASIC - Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ASPI - Advanced SCSI Programming Interface
AT - Advanced Technology
ATI - ATI Technologies Inc.
ATX - Advanced Technology Extended

--- B ---
BFG - BFG Technologies
BIOS - Basic Input Output System
BNC - Barrel Nut Connector

--- C ---
CAS - Column Address Signal
CD - Compact Disk
CDR - Compact Disk Recorder
CDRW - Compact Disk Re-Writer
CD-ROM - Compact Disk - Read Only Memory
CFM - Cubic Feet per Minute (ft�/min)
CMOS - Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
CPU - Central Processing Unit
CTX - CTX Technology Corporation (Commited to Excellence)

--- D ---

DDR - Double Data Rate
DDR-SDRAM - Double Data Rate - Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
DFI - DFI Inc. (Design for Innovation)
DIMM - Dual Inline Memory Module
DRAM - Dynamic Random Access Memory
DPI - Dots Per Inch
DVD - Digital Versatile Disc
DVD-RAM - Digital Versatile Disk - Random Access Memory

--- E ---
ECC - Error Correction Code
ECS - Elitegroup Computer Systems
EDO - Extended Data Out
EEPROM - Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EPROM - Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EVGA - EVGA Corporation

--- F ---
FC-PGA - Flip Chip Pin Grid Array
FDC - Floppy Disk Controller
FDD - Floppy Disk Drive
FPS - Frame Per Second
FPU - Floating Point Unit
FSAA - Full Screen Anti-Aliasing
FS - For Sale
FSB - Front Side Bus

--- G ---
GB - Gigabytes
GBps - Gigabytes per second or Gigabits per second
GDI - Graphical Device Interface
GHz - GigaHertz

--- H ---
HDD - Hard Disk Drive
HIS - Hightech Information System Limited
HP - Hewlett-Packard Development Company
HSF - Heatsink-Fan

--- I ---
IBM - International Business Machines Corporation
IC - Integrated Circuit
IDE - Integrated Drive Electronics
IFS- Item for Sale
IRQ - Interrupt Request
ISA - Industry Standard Architecture
ISO - International Standards Organization

--- J ---
JBL - JBL (Jame B. Lansing) Speakers
JVC - JVC Company of America

- K ---
Kbps - Kilobits Per Second
KBps - KiloBytes per second

--- L ---
LG - LG Electronics
LAN - Local Are Network
LCD - Liquid Crystal Display
LDT - Lightning Data Transport
LED - Light Emitting Diode

--- M ---
MAC - Media Access Control
MB � MotherBoard or Megabyte
MBps - Megabytes Per Second
Mbps - Megabits Per Second or Megabits Per Second
MHz - MegaHertz
MIPS - Million Instructions Per Second
MMX - Multi-Media Extensions
MSI - Micro Star International

--- N ---
NAS - Network Attached Storage
NAT - Network Address Translation
NEC - NEC Corporation
NIC - Network Interface Card

--- O ---
OC - Overclock (Over Clock)
OCZ - OCZ Technology
OEM - Original Equipment Manufacturer

--- P ---
PC - Personal Computer
PCB - Printed Circuit Board
PCI - Peripheral Component Interconnect
PDA - Personal Digital Assistant
PCMCIA - Peripheral Component Microchannel Interconnect Architecture
PGA - Professional Graphics Array
PLD - Programmable Logic Device
PM - Private Message / Private Messaging
PnP - Plug 'n Play
PNY - PNY Technology
POST - Power On Self Test
PPPoA - Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM
PPPoE - Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet
PQI - PQI Corporation
PSU - Power Supply Unit

--- R ---
RAID - Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
RAM - Random Access Memory
RAMDAC - Random Access Memory Digital Analog Convertor
RDRAM - Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory
ROM - Read Only Memory
RPM - Revolutions Per Minute

--- S ---
SASID - Self-scanned Amorphous Silicon Integrated Display
SCA - SCSI Configured Automatically
SCSI - Small Computer System Interface
SDRAM - Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
SECC - Single Edge Contact Connector
SODIMM - Small Outline Dual Inline Memory Module
SPARC - Scalable Processor ArChitecture
SOHO - Small Office Home Office
SRAM - Static Random Access Memory
SSE - Streaming SIMD Extensions
SVGA - Super Video Graphics Array
S/PDIF - Sony/Philips Digital Interface

--- T ---
TB - Terabytes
TBps - Terabytes per second
Tbps - Terabits per second
TDK - TDK Electronics
TEC - Thermoelectric Cooler
TPC - TipidPC
TWAIN - Technology Without An Important Name

--- U ---
UART - Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
USB - Universal Serial Bus
UTP - Unshieled Twisted Pair

--- V ---
VCD - Video CD
VPN - Virtual Private Network

--- W ---
WAN - Wide Area Network
WTB - Want to Buy
WYSIWYG - What You See Is What You Get

--- X ---
XGA - Extended Graphics Array
XFX - XFX Graphics, a Division of Pine
XMS - Extended Memory Specification
XT - Extended Technology

Convert To Basic And Dynamic Disks In Windows Xp


Windows XP Professional supports two types of disk storage: basic and dynamic. Basic disk storage uses partition-oriented disks. A basic disk contains basic volumes (primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives).

Dynamic disk storage uses volume-oriented disks, and includes features that basic disks do not, such as the ability to create volumes that span multiple disks (spanned and striped volumes).

General Notes
Before you change a basic disk to a dynamic disk, note these items:

You must have at least 1 megabyte (MB) of free space on any master boot record (MBR) disk that you want to convert. This space is automatically reserved when the partition or volume is created in Microsoft Windows 2000 or Windows XP Professional. However, it may not be available on partitions or volumes that are created in other operating systems.

When you convert to a dynamic disk, the existing partitions or logical drives on the basic disk are converted to simple volumes on the dynamic disk.

After you convert to a dynamic disk, the dynamic volumes cannot be changed back to partitions. You must first delete all dynamic volumes on the disk, and then convert the dynamic disk back to a basic disk. If you want to keep your data, you must first back up or move the data to another volume.

After you convert to a dynamic disk, local access to the dynamic disk is limited to Windows XP Professional and Windows 2000.

If your disk contains multiple installations of Windows XP Professional or Windows 2000, do not convert to a dynamic disk. The conversion operation removes partition entries for all partitions on the disk with the exception of the system and boot volumes for the current operating system.

Dynamic disks are not supported on portable computers or Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition.

Before you change a dynamic disk back to a basic disk, note that all existing volumes must be deleted from the disk before you can convert it back to a basic disk. If you want to keep your data, back up the data, or move your data to another volume.

How to Convert a Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk

To convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk:

1) Log on as Administrator or as a member of the Administrators group.

2) Click Start, and then click Control Panel.

3) Click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Computer Management.

4) In the left pane, click Disk Management.

5) In the lower-right pane, right-click the basic disk that you want to convert, and then click Convert to Dynamic Disk.

NOTE:You must right-click the gray area that contains the disk title on the left side of the Details pane. For example, right-click Disk 0.

6) Select the check box that is next to the disk that you want to convert (if it is not already selected), and then clickOK.

7) Click Details if you want to view the list of volumes in the disk.

8) Click Convert.

9) Click Yes when you are prompted to convert, and then click OK.

How to Convert a Dynamic Disk to a Basic Disk

To change a dynamic disk back to a basic disk:

1) Back up all the data on all the volumes on the disk you want to convert to a basic disk.

2) Log on as Administrator or as a member of the Administrators group.

3) Click Start, and then click Control Panel.

4) Click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Computer Management.

5) In the left pane, click Disk Management.

6) Right-click a volume on the dynamic disk that you want to change to a basic disk, and then click Delete Volume.

7) Click Yes when you are prompted to delete the volume.

8) Repeat steps 4 and 5 for each volume on the dynamic disk.

9) After you have deleted all the volumes on the dynamic disk, right-click the dynamic disk that you want to change to a basic disk, and then click Convert to Basic Disk.

NOTE:You must right-click the gray area that contains the disk title on the left side of the Details pane. For example, right-click Disk 1.

Converting to NTFS


Converting to NTFS

Your hard drive must be formatted with a file system such as FAT, FAT32 or NTFS so that Windows can be installed on to it. This system determines how files are named, organised and stored on the drive. If you’re not using it already, NTFS (New Technology File System) is recommended for Windows XP because of the additional functionality it offers. If your PC came with Windows XP pre-installed then there’s a chance that you’re already using NTFS. If you’ve upgraded from Windows 98 or Windows Me you may still be using FAT or FAT 32. The option to change over to NTFS would have been available during the upgrade process. Don’t worry if you skipped this as it’s possible to convert at any time from within Windows XP without losing any data.

The recommended option
There are a number of features in Windows XP that will only work if the NTFS file system is present, which is why it’s suggested you make use of it. File and folder permissions, encryption and privacy options are just some of those you’ll be able to access. In particular, those of you who have set up user accounts will find NTFS invaluable. For instance, if you continue to use FAT or FAT32 anyone with physical access to the drive will be able to access the files and folders that are stored there. However, with NTFS you’ll be able to use a level of encryption (Professional Edition only) that will enable you to protect your data.

You’ll also find NTFS more reliable in that it’s more able to recover from disk errors than its FAT or FAT32 counterparts. A log of all disk activity is kept so should a crash occur, Windows XP can use this information to repair the file system when your PC boots up again. To find out what file system you’re using, open My Computer, right-click your main hard drive and choose Properties. Take a look at the General tab to see confirmation of the file system that’s in use.

Convert now
You can use the convert tool in Windows XP to change the file system on your hard disk from FAT or FAT32 to NTFS. The whole process is safe and your existing data won’t be destroyed. To begin, click Start -> Run, type cmd and press [Return]. At the command prompt type convert c: /fs:ntfs and press [Return] (where ‘c’ is the letter of the drive you’re converting). When you try and run the convert utility, it’s likely that Windows XP will be using your paging file so the process won’t be completed immediately. Therefore, you’ll see a brief message on screen informing you that the conversion will take place instead the next time Windows starts up. Having restarted, the Check Disk utility will run, the conversion will be performed automatically and you may find that your PC will reboot twice more.

The benefits
With your drive now running NTFS, it’s time to take advantage of the new options that are available. Having created a number of different user accounts you can now control the level of access that’s granted to individual users. For example, there are going to be certain files and folders that you’ll want some users to be able to access but not others. If you have Windows XP Professional Edition you can do this immediately.

Right-click any file or folder, choose Properties and select the Security tab. A dialog will be displayed showing the names of all your users. Alongside will be two columns which enable you to select levels of access for each of them, the permissions include Full Control, Modify, Read and Write. You can then check the appropriate box to determine whether or not to Allow or Deny a particular permission. For Windows XP Home Edition users, the Security tab won’t be immediately available. To access this option you’ll need to restart your PC, pressing [F8] until a menu appears. Next select Safe Mode and wait for Windows XP to start up. You can then set your options in the same way.

Another feature is NTFS compression. It’s quick and seamless as your file or folder is decompressed automatically when you access it. (Don’t confuse this with a Zip compression utility where the files need to be extracted before they can be accessed.) Although you may have used NTFS compression on a file or folder, there’s no way of telling just by looking at it. To remedy this, open My Computer, click Tools -> Folder Options and select the View tab. Under Advanced settings, scroll down and check the option ‘Show encrypted or compressed NTFS files in color’, then click Apply and OK. Take a look at your compressed items in My Computer and you’ll see the text label has changed from black to blue. Something else that’s exclusive to Professional Edition users is the Encrypting File System (EFS). You can use this to protect your important data so that no one else can read it. Your encrypted files and folders will only be accessible when you have logged into your user account successfully.

Delete An "undeletable" File


Open a Command Prompt window and leave it open.
Close all open programs.
Click Start, Run and enter TASKMGR.EXE
Go to the Processes tab and End Process on Explorer.exe.
Leave Task Manager open.
Go back to the Command Prompt window and change to the directory the AVI (or other undeletable file) is located in.
At the command prompt type DEL where is the file you wish to delete.
Go back to Task Manager, click File, New Task and enter EXPLORER.EXE to restart the GUI shell.
Close Task Manager.

Or you can try this

Open Notepad.exe

Click File>Save As..>

locate the folder where ur undeletable file is

Choose 'All files' from the file type box

click once on the file u wanna delete so its name appears in the 'filename' box

put a " at the start and end of the filename
(the filename should have the extension of the undeletable file so it will overwrite it)

click save,

It should ask u to overwrite the existing file, choose yes and u can delete it as normal

Here's a manual way of doing it. I'll take this off once you put into your first post zain.

1. Start
2. Run
3. Type: command
4. To move into a directory type: cd c:\*** (The stars stand for your folder)
5. If you cannot access the folder because it has spaces for example Program Files or Kazaa Lite folder you have to do the following. instead of typing in the full folder name only take the first 6 letters then put a ~ and then 1 without spaces. Example: cd c:\progra~1\kazaal~1
6. Once your in the folder the non-deletable file it in type in dir - a list will come up with everything inside.
7. Now to delete the file type in del ***.bmp, txt, jpg, avi, etc... And if the file name has spaces you would use the special 1st 6 letters followed by a ~ and a 1 rule. Example: if your file name was bad file.bmp you would type once in the specific folder thorugh command, del badfil~1.bmp and your file should be gone. Make sure to type in the correct extension.

Delete Files From The Recent File List In Windows


This tip requires a change to the Windows Registry. Please see the MSFN Guide "Backup Your Registry" if you are new to the Windows Registry.

Windows Media Player (WMP) is a built-in application that allows you to play multimedia files. Like many other applications, WMP remembers the most recently played files and displays them in the Recent File List under the File menu. This feature is useful if you regularly play certain files, but you may want to clear the list if you share the computer and a user account or create archives and CDs.

There are two ways you can clear the list:

I. The ClearMRU.exe Utility is available for free in the Windows Media Player Bonus Pack from Microsoft, but Microsoft does not support this tool.

II. You can also manually delete the list through the Windows Registry:

1. Start the Windows Registry Editor, regedit.exe, by typing regedit in the Windows Run Command Line.

2. Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\MediaPlayer\Player\RecentFileList.

3. Delete the RecentFileList subkey.

4. If you've also streamed content from the Internet, you can delete the RecentURLList subkey.

5. Exit the Registry Editor.

6. Restart the computer.

To keep certain files in the list, don't delete the entire key. Deleting individual entries within the key will get rid of the files that you no longer want in the Recent File List.

Windows Server 2008 Technologies



Windows Server 2008 gives you the ability to deliver rich Web-based experiences efficiently and effectively, with improved administration and diagnostics, development and application tools, and lower infrastructure costs.

Internet Information Services 7.0: Windows Server 2008 delivers a unified platform for Web publishing that integrates Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.0, ASP.NET, Windows Communication Foundation, Windows Workflow Foundation, and Windows SharePoint Services 3.0. IIS 7.0 is a major enhancement to the existing Windows Web server and plays a central role in integrating Web platform technologies. IIS 7.0 helps developers and administrators alike maximize their control over network/Internet interfaces through key functionality pillars that include delegated administration, enhanced security and a reduced attack surface area, integrated application and health management for Web services, and improved administration tools.


With its built-in server virtualization technology, Windows Server 2008 enables you to reduce costs, increase hardware utilization, optimize your infrastructure, and improve server availability.

Terminal Services: Windows Server 2008 introduces new functionality in Terminal Services to connect to remote computers and applications. Terminal Services RemoteApp completely integrates applications running on a terminal server with users' desktops such that they behave as if they were running on an individual user's local computer; users can run programs from a remote location side-by-side with their local programs. Terminal Services Web Access permits this same flexibility of remote application access via Web browser, granting an even wider variety of ways user can access and use programs executing on a terminal server. These features in conjunction with Terminal Services Gateway allow users to access remote desktops and remote applications via HTTPS in a firewall-friendly manner.


Windows Server 2008 is the most secure Windows Server ever. Its hardened operating system and security innovations, including Network Access Protection, Federated Rights Management, and Read-Only Domain Controller, provide unprecedented levels of protection for your network, your data, and your business.

Network Access Protection (NAP): A new framework that allows an IT administrator to define health requirements for the network and to restrict computers that do not meet these requirements from communicating with the network. NAP enforces administrator-defined policies that describe the health requirements for the given organization. For example, health requirements may be defined to include all updates to the operating system be installed, or having antivirus or antispyware software installed and updated. In this way, network administrators can define the baseline level of protection all computers carry when connecting to the network.

Microsoft BitLocker provides additional security for your data through full volume encryption on multiple drives, even when the system is in unauthorized hands or running a different operating system time, data, and control.

Read-Only Domain Controller (RODC): A new type of domain controller configuration in the Windows Server 2008 operating system that makes it possible for organizations to easily deploy a domain controller in locations where the physical security of a domain controller cannot be guaranteed. An RODC hosts a read-only replica of the Active Directory directory services database for a given domain. Prior to this release, users who had to authenticate with a domain controller, but were in a branch office that could not provide adequate physical security for a domain controller, had to authenticate over a wide area network (WAN). In many cases, this was not an efficient solution. By placing a read-only Active Directory database replica closer to branch users, these users can benefit from faster logon times and more efficient access to authentication resources on the network, even in environments with inadequate physical security to deploy a traditional domain controller.

Failover Clustering: Improvements are aimed to makes it easier to configure server clusters while providing protection and availability of your data and applications. By using the new Validate Tool in failover clusters, you can perform tests to determine whether your system, storage, and network configuration is suitable for a cluster. With failover clusters in Windows Server 2008, administrators can carry out setup and migration tasks, as well as management and operations tasks more easily. Improvements to the cluster infrastructure help administrators maximize availability of the services they provide to users, achieve better storage and network performance and improve security.

Solid Foundation for Business Workloads

Windows Server 2008 is the most flexible and robust Windows Server operating system to date. With new technologies and features such as Server Core, PowerShell, Windows Deployment Services, and enhanced networking and clustering technologies, Windows Server 2008 provides you the most versatile and reliable Windows platform for all of your workload and application requirements.

Server Core: Beginning with the Beta 2 release of Windows Server 2008, administrators can choose to install Windows Server with only the services required to perform the DHCP, DNS, file server, or domain controller roles. This new installation option will not install non-essential services and applications and will provide base server functionality without any extra overhead. While the Server Core installation option is a fully functioning mode of the operating system supporting one of the designate roles, it does not include the server graphic user interface (GUI). Because Server Core installations include only what is required for the designated roles, a Server Core installation will typically require less maintenance and fewer updates as there are fewer components to manage. In other words, since there are fewer programs and components installed and running on the server, there are fewer attack vectors exposed to the network, resulting in a reduced attack surface. If a security flaw or vulnerability is discovered in a component that is not installed, a patch is not required.

Windows PowerShell: A new command-line shell with over 130 tools and an integrated scripting language. It enables administrator to more easily control and securely automate routine system administration tasks, especially across multiple servers. Windows PowerShell does not require you to migrate your existing scripts, and it is ideally suited for automation of new Windows Server 2008 features. A new admin-focused scripting language, and consistent syntax and utilities, Windows PowerShell accelerates automation of system administration tasks—such as Active Directory, Terminal Server, and Internet Information Server (IIS) 7.0—and improves your organization's ability to address the unique system management problems of your environment.

Windows PowerShell is easy to adopt, learn, and use, because it does not require a background in programming, and it works with your existing IT infrastructure, existing scripts, and existing command-line tools.

Server Manager: A new feature that is included in Windows Server 2008. It is a "one-stop-shop" designed to guide Information Technology administrators through the end-to-end process of installing, configuring, and managing server roles and features that are part of Windows Server 2008. Server Manager replaces and consolidates a number of features from Microsoft Windows Server 2003 such as Manage Your Server, Configure Your Server, and Add or Remove Windows Components. You can use Server Manager to configure various "roles" and "features" on your machine.

Windows Deployment Services (WDS): An updated and redesigned Windows Server 2008 version of Remote Installation Services (RIS), WDS assists with the rapid adoption and deployment of image-based Windows operating systems. WDS allows network-based installation of Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 to "bare metal" computers (no operating system installed), and even supports mixed environments including Microsoft Windows XP and Microsoft Windows Server 2003. Windows Deployment Services thus provides an end-to-end solution for deployment of Windows operating systems to client and server computers and reduces the total cost of ownership (TCO) and complexity of Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista deployments.

10 New Features in Windows Server 2008


#1: Server Core. Here is where the world could really change for Microsoft going forward: Imagine a cluster of low-overhead, virtualized, GUI-free server OSes running core roles like DHCP and DNS in protected environments, all to themselves, managed by way of a single terminal.

Beginning with Windows Server 2008, the baggage is optional. As product manager Ward Ralston told BetaNews in an interview published earlier this week, the development team has already set up Beta 3 to handle eight roles, and the final release may support more.

What's more, with the proper setup, admins can manage remote Server Core installations using a local GUI that presents the data from the GUI-less remote servers. "We have scripts that you can install that enable [TCP] port 3389," Ralston told us, "so you can administer it with Terminal Services. [So] if you're sitting at a full install version and let's say I bring up the DNS, I can connect to a Server Core running DNS, and I can administer it from another machine using the GUI on this one. So you're not just roped into the command line for all administration. We see the majority of IT pros using existing GUIs or using PowerShell that leverages WMI [Windows Management Instrumentation] running on Server Core, to perform administration."

But a later, more "component-ized" version of .NET without the graphics functionality may run within Server Core. This could complete a troika, if you will, resulting in the lightest-weight and most manageable servers Microsoft has ever produced. It may take another five years for enterprises to finally complete the migration, but once they do...this changes everything.

2: PowerShell. At last. For two years, we've been told it'll be part of Longhorn, then not really part of Longhorn, then a separate free download that'll support Longhorn, then the underpinning for Exchange Server 2007. Now we know it's a part of the shipping operating system: the radically new command line tool that can either supplement or completely replace GUI-based administration.
Last week at WinHEC, Windows Server programming chief Iain McDonald flat out proclaimed, "If I could set the direction of it, I would like to make PowerShell the default shell for Windows. That's my personal bias."
At TechEd 2007 in Orlando in early June, we'll be seeing some new examples of PowerShell in the WS2K8 work environment - hopefully unhindered now that the product is shipping along with the public Beta least unless someone changes his mind. We hope that phase of PowerShell's history is past it now.

#3: Windows Server Virtualization. Even pared down a bit, the Viridian project will still provide enterprises with the single most effective tool to date for reducing total cost of emerge from Microsoft. Many will argue virtualization is still an open market, thanks to VMware; and for perhaps the next few years, VMware may continue to be the feature leader in this market.

But Viridian's drive to leverage hardware-based virtualization support from both Intel and AMD has helped drive those manufacturers to roll out their hardware support platforms in a way that a third party - even one as influential as VMware - might not have accomplished.

#4: Windows Hardware Error Architecture (WHEA). That's right, Microsoft has actually standardized the error - more accurately, the protocol by which applications report to the system what errors they have uncovered. You'd think this would already have been done.

"One of the problems facing error reporting is that there's so many different ways that devices report errors," remarked Russinovich. "There's no standardization across the hardware ecosystem. So that made it very difficult to write an application, up to now, that can aggregate all these different error sources and present them in a unified way. It means a lot of specific code for each of these types of sources, and it makes it very hard for any one application to deliver you a good error diagnostic and management interface."

Now, with hardware-oriented errors all being reported using the same socketed interface, third-party software can conceivably mitigate and manage problems, reopening a viable software market category for management tools.

#5: Address Space Load Randomization (ASLR) Perhaps one of the most controversial added features already, especially since its debut in Vista, ASLR makes certain that no two subsequent instances of an operating system load the same system drivers in the same place in memory each time.

Malware, Mark Russinovich described it (as only he can), is essentially a blob of code that refuses to be supported by standard system services. "Because it's isn't actually loaded the way a normal process is, it would never link with the operating system services that it might want to use," he described. "So if it wants to do anything with the OS like drop a file onto your disk, it's got to know where those operating system services live.

"The way that malware authors have worked around this chicken-and-egg kind of situation," he continued, "is, because Windows didn't previously randomize load addresses, that meant that if they wanted to call something in KERNEL32.DLL, KERNEL32.DLL on Service Pack 2 will always load in the same location in memory, on a 32-bit system. Every time the system boots, regardless of whose machine you're looking at. That made it possible for them to just generate tables of where functions were located."

Now, with each system service likely to occupy one of 256 randomly selected locations in memory, offset by plus or minus 16 MB of randomized address space, the odds of malware being able to locate a system service on its own have increased from elementary to astronomical.

6: SMB2 network file system. Long, long ago, SMB was adopted as the network file system for Windows. While it was an adequate choice at the time, Russinovich believes, "SMB has kind of outlived its life as a scalable, high-performance network file system."

So SMB2 finally replaces it. With media files having attained astronomical sizes, servers need to be able to deal with them expeditiously. Russinovich noted that in internal tests, SMB2 on media servers delivered thirty to forty times faster file system performance than Windows Server 2003. He repeated the figure to make certain we realized he meant a 4000% boost.

#7: Kernel Transaction Manager. This is a feature which developers can take advantage of, which could greatly reduce, if not eliminate, one of the most frequent causes of System Registry and file system corruption: multiple threads seeking access to the same resource.

In a formal database, a set of instructed changes is stored in memory, in sequence, and then "committed" all at once as a formal transaction. This way, other users aren't given a snapshot of the database in the process of being changed - the changes appear to happen all at once. This feature is finally being utilized in the System Registry of both Vista and Windows Server 2008.

#8: Clean service shutdown. One of Windows' historical problems concerns its system shutdown procedure. In XP, once shutdown begins, the system starts a 20-second timer. After that time is up, it signals the user whether she wants to terminate the application herself, perhaps prematurely. For Windows Server, that same 20-second timer may be the lifeclock for an application, even one that's busy spooling ever-larger blocks of data to the disk.

In WS2K8, that 20-second countdown has been replaced with a service that will keep applications given the signal all the time they need to shut down, as long as they continually signal back that they're indeed shutting down. Russinovich said developers were skeptical at first about whether this new procedure ceded too much power to applications; but in practice, they decided the cleaner overall shutdowns were worth the trade-of.

#9: Parallel session creation. "Prior to Server 2008, session creation was a serial operation," Russinovich reminded us. "If you've got a Terminal Server system, or you've got a home system where you're logging into more than one user at the same time, those are sessions. And the serialization of the session initialization caused a bottleneck on large Terminal Services systems. So Monday morning, everybody gets to work, they all log onto their Terminal Services system like a few hundred people supported by the system, and they've all got to wait in line to have their session initialized, because of the way session initialization was architected."

The new session model in both Vista and WS2K8 can initiate at least four sessions in parallel, or even more if a server has more than four processors. "If you've got a Vista machine where this architecture change actually was introduced, and you've got multiple Media Center extenders, those media center extenders are going to be able to connect up to the Media Center in parallel," he added. "So if you have a media center at home, and you send all their kids to their rooms and they all turn on their media extenders at the same time, they're going to be streaming media faster from their Vista machines then if you had Media Center on a XP machine."

10: The self-healing NTFS file system. Ever since the days of DOS, an error in the file system meant that a volume had to be taken offline for it to be remedied. In WS2K8, a new system service works in the background that can detect a file system error, and perform a healing process without anyone taking the server down.

"So if there's a corruption detected someplace in the data structure, an NTFS worker thread is spawned," Russinovich explained, "and that worker thread goes off and performs a localized fix-up of those data structures. The only effect that an application would see is that files would be unavailable for the period of time that it was trying to access, had been corrupted. If it retried later after the corruption was healed, then it would succeed. But the system never has to come down, so there's no reason to have to reboot the system and perform a low-level CHKDSK offline."

Microsoft DNS


Windows 2000 DHCP clients register forward lookup entries (A record) by default. The DHCP server registers forward (A) and reverse (PTR) DNS records.

Windows 2000 computers can register their IP address and names with the network DNS server that supports dynamic updates (Not all DNS servers support dynamic updates, but Windows 2000 DNS servers do). Other operating systems other than Windows 2000 can not register their IP address and names with DNS dynamically. A Windows DHCP server can be configured to register assigned IP address and host names with the DNS server which can support dynamic updates. Heres the procedure on the DHCP server:

  1. Run the administrative tool, "DHCP" and highlight the DHCP server.
  2. Select "Action" and "Properties".
  3. Click the DNS tab.
  4. Select the checkbox, "Enable updates for DNS clients that do not support dynamic update". Select the "Always update DNS" checkbox to have the DHCP server update DNS, even for Windows 2000 systems.

WINS Replicatio


When two WINS servers are configured to communicate with each other replication occurs any time the data base on one of them changes. Servers are configured as a push or pull partner. A server can be both a push and pull partner. Push partners send update notices when a database change is made. A pull partner asks push partners for database entries more recent than their current listings. Only changes are replicated. Pull servers are used across slow links since pull requests can be set for specific times.

  • A pull server will pull updates when it is started, then at chosen times thereafter.
  • A push partner will send updates when a change threshold is reached. A thershold and update interval may be set.

Windows 2000 DNS

In Windows 2000, DNS is required to use Active Directory.

Domain Name Service is used to change internet domain and computer computer names into IP addresses and vice versa. DNS works at the application layer and uses TCP and UDP for transport. TCP is only used if returned data is truncated. See the DNS section in the Networking Guide for information about DNS. DNS was originally based on HOSTS files that were maintained by a centralized Network Information Center. Today of is based on a hierarchy of servers with a distributed hierarchial database throughout the network or internet.

DNS Levels

DNS is a hierarchial naming structure with the following levels:

  • Root designated by a dot (.).
  • First level - This indicates country or type of organization such as "org", "com", and "net".
  • Second level - Indicates the organization name and can be purchased for a yearly fee.

Notice that the highest level of the domain is listed last. An example of a domain name that you may be familiar with is:

DNS Operation

DNS Servers

On the client side, a DNS resolver is used to send queries to DNS servers. The resolver is normally part of a library routine or it is built into the application. DNS uses zone files to keep name and IP address database information for the internet domain or hierarchial set of domains. Zones are a storage of information in a file for a DNS domain or DNS subdomains (DNS domains are not the same as Windows domains). DNS does not yet support dynamic configuration but has been modified for Windows systems to do so. Different aliases may be created by the administrator for the same host. Three types of name servers as defined by how it relates to the zone information:

  • Primary - Locally stored files exist on the name server data base. The master zone file copy is stored here.
  • Secondary - Gets data called a zone transfer from another server that is the zone authority.
  • Caching Only - Caches name server information and does not contain its own files.

A primary and secondary name server should be used on a network. When a zone is defined, some server must be configured to be a master name server for the zone. There can be different master name servers for different zones. The master server provides copies of the zone information to the secondary DNS server. Name servers can be configured to get information from other name servers when the information is not found in the local database. These types are forwarders and slaves. Name servers as categorized by function:

  • Master - The zone authority that contains the master zone files.
  • Forwarders - A name server that passes name resolution requests to other name servers. This configuration is done on a per server basis.
  • Slaves - Slave name servers are configured to use forwarders.

Windows introduces additional terminalogy:

  • Standard primary - The same as a primary DNS server listed above. This is a master server by function.
  • Active Directory Integrated (primary) - DNS entries are stored with Active Directory data rather than a normal zone file. More than one of these Active Directory primary servers may exist due to Active directory replication. This term is used to refer to both the Active Directory Integrated zones and files that support the zone.
  • Standard secondary - The same as a secondary DNS server listed above. This is a slave server by function.
  • Root server - The server that has the DNS data for the root zone. The root zone is the organization internal network root zone or internet root zone. It is used when a private network is not directly on the internet (no connection or via proxy server).

If the DNS server is connected to the internet, the DNS Server Wizard will not allow the DNS server to be configured as a root server.


Query types are:

  • Inverse - Getting the name from the IP address. These are used by servers as a security check.
  • Iterative - Server gives its best answer. This type of inquiry is sent from one server to another.
  • Recursive - Cannot refer the query to another name server.

Zone Transfers

The DNS zone file serial number is used to trach DNS changes. The notify function is used to initiate zone transfers. Zone transfer types are:

  • Full - AXFR Query - Secondary server refresh interval expires and it sends an AXFR qurey.
  • Incremental - IXFR query - Only new or updated entries are copied.

DNS Zones

Possible zones include:

  • Forward lookup zone - Name to IP address map.
  • Reverse lookup zone - IP address to name map.
  • Standard primary zone (primary zone) - A master copy of a forward or reverse lookup zone.
  • Active Directory integrated zone - A copy of a standard primary or Active Directory integrated zone. The IP address and computer name is stored in Active Directory and replicated to all local domain controllers. DNS information is not replicated to domain controllers outside the domain.
  • Standard secondary zone (secondary zone)


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